Wednesday, November 13, 2019

Analyse the case study with reference to Michael Porter’s Theory :: Business and Management Studies

Analyse the case study with reference to Michael Porter’s Theory of Competitive Advantage and answer the following question: Does America have competitive advantage in the textile and garment industry? Analyse the case study with reference to Michael Porter’s Theory of Competitive Advantage and answer the following question: Does America have competitive advantage in the textile and garment industry? You answer must include the following elements: 1. A clear outline of Porter’s theory with supporting references. 20% 2. An analysis of the case study with reference to the 4 main elements of Porter’s Diamond. (N.B. You will not be able to comment on company structure, as the case study does not include information on this. You should, however, refer to factor conditions, demand conditions, firm rivalry and related and supporting industries.) 40% 3. An analysis of the case study with reference to Porter’s secondary points of chance and government actions. 20% 4. Your conclusion. 10 % The remaining 10 % will be for grammar, style, clarity, using the correct system of referencing (the Harvard System) etc. Literature: Michael E. Porter. The Competitive Advantage of Nations. Does America have competitive advantage in the textile and garment industry? For a country to have a competitive advantage, it is necessary to understand Michael Porter’s Theory of National Competitive Advantage. Michael Porter introduced a model that allows analysing why some nations are more competitive than others are, and why some industries within nations are more competitive than others are, in his book The Competitive Advantage of Nations. This model of determining factors of national advantage has become known as Porters Diamond. It suggests that the national home base of an organization plays an important role in shaping the extent to which it is likely to achieve advantage on a global scale. This home base provides basic factors, which support or hinder organizations from building advantages in global competition. Porter distinguishes four determinants: Factor Conditions The situation in a country regarding production factors, like skilled labour, infrastructure, etc., which are relevant for competition in particular industries. These factors can be grouped into human resources (qualification level, cost of labour, commitment etc.), material resources (natural resources, vegetation, space etc.), knowledge resources, capital resources, and infrastructure. They also include factors like quality of research on universities, deregulation of labor markets, or liquidity of national stock markets. These national factors often provide initial advantages, which are subsequently built upon. Each country has its own particular set of factor conditions; hence, in each country will develop those industries for which the particular set of factor conditions is

Monday, November 11, 2019

Epo in Sport

Competitive athletes are constantly in search of ways to get better, seeking a slight edge over their closest competition. They are willing to practice for countless hours, put themselves through rigorous training and follow a very strict diet. Those who are passionate about their sport are willing to do just about anything to improve performance, but just how far are athletes willing to go? With recent advancements in sports science, it has become possible to alter some elements of human physiology.The human body has been meticulously studied over the years, and as a result we are able to comprehend how complex systems function enabling the human body to perform simple everyday functions, as well as, impressive athletic performances. Science has discovered there are ways to improve the physiology of the human body to enhance athletic performance. By carefully tailoring specific functions to enhance a specific task an athlete will most likely be able to get the â€Å"one up† o n the competition.Science has also discovered there are dangers associated with tampering with these complex systems that keep the human body alive and well. Unfortunately, some athletes ignore the physiological risks/ professional repercussions and indulge in enhancing some physiological processes in order to gain a slight edge against the competition. Today, as well as in the past, various sporting organizations have had to deal with performance-enhancing issues through testing of their athletes, yet these people continue to seek out ways to sneak under the wire, undetected.One example of athletes trying to beat the system is that of the recently publicized performance-enhancing dispute with blood doping in the sport of cycling, namely the use of recombinant human erythropoietin (Robinson, Mangin, and Saugy 2003). The following will discuss the function of erythropoietin, its uses in medicine and athletics, the benefits and risks of artificial along with testing methods for detect ion of illegal use. In order to perform in endurance sports, efficient oxygen delivery from lungs to muscles is crucial.The cells responsible for oxygen delivery are erythrocytes, or red blood cells. The functional portion of the red blood cell that acts as an oxygen carrier is the protein molecule hemoglobin (Kraene, Fleck and Deschenes 2012). Hemoglobin is a four part haem-iron containing protein, with two alpha and two beta subunits associated with each molecule. Hemoglobin accounts for 99% of the protein composition of an erythrocyte (Lippi, Franchini, Salvengo et al). Circulating blood contains approximately 40-45% red blood cells in its composition (Kraene, Fleck and Deschenes 2012).The hemoglobin associated with each red blood cell has a specific mechanism for pick-up and delivery of oxygen. This mechanism depends on varying physiological body conditions during which oxygen has differing affinity for the hemoglobin molecule. The conditions at which affinity for oxygen is high include lower body temperature, low carbon dioxide, and low 2,3-diphosphoglyerate (Elliott 2008). As these are the conditions found in the lungs, plentiful oxygen will bind to the hemoglobin for transport to the tissue cells in the body.In the tissue where carbon dioxide concentrations are high, body temperature increases, higher hydrogen ion and ,2,3-disphosphoglycerate concentrations, oxygen affinity for hemoglobin is reduced, resulting in the delivery of oxygen to tissues (Elliott 2008). During physical exercise, the body's consumption of oxygen is increased due to the demand of working muscles. As a result of this process, the carrying capacity of hemoglobin is adjusted automatically to deliver adequate oxygen to the muscle tissues (Lippi, Franchini, Salvango et al 2006).Applying this principle of supply and demand, to an endurance sport, one can see how an athlete’s aerobic training regime aims to peak the efficiency of the process of oxygen delivery from lungs to muscl e tissue. To maximize the process of oxygen delivery, a high number of circulating erythrocytes is desired, resulting in more available hemoglobin and therefore more oxygen can be delivered to working muscles. Red blood cell (RBC) production, called erythropoiesis, is carefully controlled and monitored by the body (Lippi, Franchini, Salvango et al 2006).This monitoring system involves oxygen-sensing cells to detect hypoxia (low oxygen concentration) in the body. During oxygen deprivation, a nerurosecretory mechanism is activated through chemoreceptors found in the carotid body ( in the carotid artery found in the neck) and in the lungs. If out of balance, the body undergoes rapid cardiopulmonary adjustments to compensate for the current stress of hypoxia (Kraene, Fleck and Deschenes 2012). One of the factors present during hypoxia is the hypoxia inducible factor, HIF-1.This molecule acts as a transcription factor for controlling several genes (Lippi, Franchini, Salvango et al 2006). When oxygen levels are low, the enzymes that normally inhibit HIF-1 cease their activity. The HIF-1a molecule becomes available is now capable of binding with HIF-b to cross the nuclear membrane of the cell and promotes gene transcription (Lippi, Franchini, Salvango et al 2006). One of the main coding events that occurs as a result of the gene transcription is production of erythropoietin (Epo).This endogenous Epo is then produced in the body, specifically in the peritubular capillary-lining cells of the renal cortex of the kidneys, with minute amounts produced in the liver and brain (Kraene, Fleck and Deschenes 2012). When the Epo molecule is synthesized, the composition is initially a 193 amino acid molecule that eventually is released as a 165 amino acid protein with much of the total molecule composed of carbohydrate (Lippi, Franchini, Salvango et al 2006). The release of Epo from the kidney to the blood then stimulates erythropoiesis in the bone marrow (Kraene, Fleck and Desch enes 2012).Science advancements in the 1980’s have led to a synthetic form of Epo known as recombinant human Epo (rHuEpo) (Spedding and Spedding 2008). It was first introduced by a team of researchers at the Northwest Kidney Centres, who conducted clinical trials that resulted in the first successful artificial form of this hormone (Eichner 2007). The production of rHuEpo, from mammalian cells to treat anemic patients was approved by the U. S. Food and DrugAdministration in 1989 (Elliott 2008). Today human recombinant erythropoietin is available in a variety of forms.It is synthesized with an amino acid sequence identical to that of endogenous erythropoietin, with slight differences in composition of carbohydrate portions of the molecule (glycosylation) (Lippi, Franchini, Salvango et al 2006). Alpha and beta erythropoietin are produced from Chinese hamster ovary cells with the only differences being a slightly longer half-life and slight difference in molecular weight (Lippi, Franchini, Salvango et al 2006). Another form of Epo is Erythropoietin gamma. It is produced from a different host cell and as a result has a different glycosylation pattern (Lippi, Franchini, Salvango et al 2006).Erythropoietin delta, yet another variation of the synthetic hormone, is the most recently introduced form. This type is produced from human cells, and has identical amino acid and glycosylation patterns as endogenous Epo, with a longer half-life of 18-20 hours compared to the 7-12 hour range of alpha and beta forms (Lippi, Franchini, Salvango et al 2006). The current research is clinically testing a protein called Continuous Erythropoietin Receptor Activator (CERA). This protein has a half-life of 133-137 hours, which equates to less frequent dosing.CERA unlike other synthetic forms of this hormone, has very mild side-effects and has yet to produce any serious adverse effects (Lippi, Franchini, Salvango et al 2006). This type of synthetic Epo may be the best option avail able for patients who require treatment for anemia (low hemoglobin levels). Unfortunately, some people suffer anemia due to various medical issues such as kidney disease, chemotherapy for cancer, HIV, blood loss, et cetera (Kraene, Fleck and Deschenes 2012). The body's demand for Epo becomes more significant when such medical conditions arise.Often times Epo needs to be artificially supplemented to compensate for the lowered hemoglobin production/ hemoglobin loss (Catlin, Fitch and Ljungqvist 2008). Originally, recombinant human erythropoietin was developed as a substitute for endogenous Epo for those who suffered from abnormal blood conditions. It is highly effective in increasing hemoglobin levels, and as a result has numerous benefits such as, reduction in required blood transfusions, restoring energy levels, increase in exercise capacity, improves cognitive function and overall quality of life improvement (Elliott 2008).When administering this hormone, the dose, frequency of adm inistration, the rate of rise of hemoglobin and target hemoglobin levels are strictly controlled (between 10-12g per 100mL), slightly lower than the range for normal range of 13-15g per 100mL. The lower range is maintained in order to keep the risks and side effects of the rHuEpo minimal (Lippi, Franchini, Salvango et al 2006). Careful monitoring and control is used to maximize the benefits for patients while minimizing the risks.Recombinant Epo not only benefits those who are suffering a blood condition but it has significant benefits to athletic performance (Elliott 2008). It is used illegally as an ergogenic aid primarily in endurance sports, such as cross-country skiing, track, swimming, and most notoriously, cycling (Bento, Damasceno, Neto 2003). One study, as noted in Exercise Physiology (Kraene, Fleck and Deschenes 2012), that involved well-trained male endurance athletes administered recombinant human erythropoietin 3 times a week for 30 days or until hematocrit levels reach ed 50%.The following resulted: an average hematocrit increase of 18. 9% (range of 42. 7-50. 8%), cycling time to exhaustion had increased 9. 4% (12. 8-14. 0 minutes longer), and cycling VO2 peak had increased 7% (range of 63. 8-68. 1 ml/kg/min). Another study also noted in Exercise Physiology (Kraene, Fleck and Deschenes 2012) gave low-dose subcutaneous injections of rHuEpo over a 6 week period to moderately to well-trained athletes and what resulted was a 6-8% increase in VO2 peak, time to exhaustion on a treadmill increased 13-17%, and hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit both increased by approximately 10% each.The use of recombinant human erythropoietin is found to have clear benefits in athletic performance, with higher trained individuals exhibiting enhanced results. At an elite level, where competition is so close, it is tempting for athletes to gain an edge over their competition though the use of rHuEpo. There is a certain amount of pressure on athletes in cycling to use ergogenic aids due to the fact that so many of the sport's top competitors are using it to boost performance (Vogel 2004). In cycling, the abuse of this ergogenic aid has recently come to light in the media.Although many benefits can be reaped in athletic performance from recombinant erythropoietin, it is not without risks. When synthetic forms were first introduced, many of the risks were unknown to athletes and use was not medically monitored as would be the case with an anemic patient. As a result, sudden heart attacks occurred that led to more than a dozen deaths of Dutch and Belgian cyclists (Vogel 2004). Their deaths were connected to inappropriate administration of rHuEpo. This form of Epo had not yet been clinically studied from an athletic perspective.The combination effect of increasing hemoglobin to well above normal range along with other factors associated with endurance sports, makes tampering with the body's natural blood physiology dangerous and potentially deadly ( Robinson, Magin and Saugy 2003). Myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular disease, transient ischemic attack and venous thromboembolism were all found to be potential events associated with the misuse of rHuEpo (Catlin, Fitch and Ljungqvist 2008). Due to the increase of red blood cells, the blood becomes more viscous and leads to an increased frequency risk of thrombotic events.There have also been proven reports of increased risk for migratory thrombophlebitis, microvascular thrombosis and thrombosis of cerebral sinuses, retinal artery, and temporal veins. The increased blood viscosity also increases systolic blood pressure during sub-maximal exercise and increases platelet reactivity resulting in risk of more blood clotting (Bento, Damasceno, and Neto 2003). One of the most serious risks found to be associated is that of red cell aplasia in which red blood cell formation ceases. Although rare but ife-threatening, this condition was found to be linked to the use of subcutaneous alpha -Epo (Lippi, Franchini, Salvango et al 2006). Anemia may also develop in individuals who mis-use rHuEpo after they discontinue the hormone, as it causes progressive erythroid marrow exhaustion due to prolonged periods of use. Some other risks and side effects include headache, muscle cramps, incomplete deviation of red blood cells, convulsion, and upper respiratory tract infections (Kraemer, Fleck and Deschenes 2012). The risks of using rHuEpo are more significant for athletes than average patients who are using for treatment.Athletes pushing to increase hemoglobin outside of a normal range run the risk of life-threatening circulatory/blood abnormalities. Testing for the use of banned erythropoietin in sports has been an ongoing challenge. As quickly as testing laboratories can produce testing methods for banned substances, new ways to slide under detection are being found (Cazzola 2000). It is difficult to directly identify rHuEpo as it has a relatively short half-life in most form s, for example an administration of 50 IU/kg given subcutaneously has a half-life of approximately 35. hours, and intravenous administration has a half-life ranging from 4 to 7 hours (Lippi, Franchini, Salvango et al 2006). Athletes could selectively time the administration of Epo and combined with concealing strategies to slip under the wire. As a result, laboratories are required to look at specific biomarkers that indicate past or current use of rHuEpo (Delanghe, Bollen and Beullens 2007). Human recombinant erythropoietin was initially a challenge to detect as various forms are extremely similar to that of endogenous Epo (Skibeli, Nissen-Lie and Torjesen 2001).As it is a rising issue in sport, laboratories are required to find better ways to detect the illegal use of rHuEpo. Initially as a measure to deter doping and identify usage, cutoff levels of hematocrit (the percentage of red blood cells in the blood) were established in some sports (Adamson and Vapnek 1991). For example, the International Cycling Union established cutoff hematocrit levels of 47% for women and 50% for men. This method was flawed, as it sometimes produced false positive results in athletes with naturally high hematocrit levels (Casoni, Ricci, Ballarin et al 1993).Currently, there is no foolproof testing method to detect the use of recombinant human erythropoietin. A combination of indirect and direct testing is currently the most effective method to identify blood dopers (Cazzola 2000). Indirect testing uses a blood sample and is based on the analysis of hematological parameters, including measures of hemoglobin, hematocrit, soluble transferrin receptors, serum Epo, percent reticulocytes, and macrocytes (Delanghe, Bollen and Beullens 2007).Changes observed in the above measures are often a result of introducing recombinant Epo to the body and can be used as an indirect marker to detect the substance (Skibeli, Nissen-Lie and Torjesen 2001). There is a reference range of parameters set for this form of testing, one indicating current use of Epo while the other can indicate recently discontinued use of Epo (Parisotto, Wu, Ashenden et al 2001). Indirect testing has the advantage of being able to detect Epo use several weeks after it has been administered, however the disadvantage of possibly producing false-positive results (Delanghe, Bollen and Beullens 2007).Changes in the measuring parameters used in indirect testing can also be the result of the body's natural modifications from training methods such as altitude training (increasing RBC levels due to lower oxygen at higher altitude, a naturally occurring body compensation) (Kraemer, Fleck and Deschenes 2012). Indirect testing is useful in being a primary indication of recombinant erythropoietin use, yet it is not completely reliable.If use of Epo is suspected after using indirect testing methods, direct testing will follow to confirm or deny the results (Birkeland and Hemmersbach 1999). Direct testing for recomb inant Epo involves the collection of a urine sample. The urine sample needs to be fairly large (20ml) and strongly concentrated (between 700-1000 fold) (Elliott 2008). The approved test that uses the direct approach is based on differences in glycosylation between endogenous Epo and artificial forms (Elliott 2008).The recombinant and endogenous forms of erythropoietin have varying isoelectric points (pI). Using isoelectric focusing (IEF), the isoelectric points can be determined (Skibeli, Nissen-Lie and Torjesen 2001). The normal range for the pI of endogenous Epo is 3. 7-4. 7, while alpha and beta Epo have a slightly higher range of 4. 4-5. 1. The Aransep form of Epo has 2 extra N-glycosylaton sites in order to increase its stability, resulting in a pI range of 3. 7-4 (Parisotto, Wu, Ashenden et al 2001).In order to see the isoforms of Epo, double immunoblotting is used in combination with monoclonal anti-Epo antibodies. The interaction of the antibodies with the recombinant forms of Epo shows if illegal forms are present in the urine (Skibeli, Nissen-Lie and Torjesen 2001). The purpose of the double immunoblotting technique is to avoid secondary antibodies interacting with proteins in urine and affect the test. A technique known as chemiluminescence is used on the blot to image the Epo (Skibeli, Nissen-Lie and Torjesen 2001).Direct testing can detect most forms synthetic Epo. When a test is found to be positive for an illegal form of Epo, a second test is performed due to the fact that occasionally enzyme activity causes a shift in the electrophoretic banding pattern of the molecule (Parisotto, Wu, Ashenden et al 2001). Additional stability testing is performed where the urine sample is incubated overnight in an acetate buffer and rHuEpo. If a banding shift is observed during the isoelectric focusing, it can be determined that the sample is negative for rHuEpo (Parisotto, Wu, Ashenden et al 2001).The direct testing method is currently the most reliable and a pproved approach and can be used during competition and off-competition periods (Elliott 2008). The development of recombinant human erythropoietin was originally an approach to treat low hemoglobin levels in anemic patients. The athletic gains that can be exhibited through introducing rHuEpo have caused abuse at the elite level in many sports. Other than disqualification and loss of credibility as an honest athlete, there are also medical risks associated with tampering with the blood's physiology in artificial ways.A combination of testing methods is currently used to identify those using rHuEpo as an ergogenic aid, as there is no single test that can clearly deny of confirm use. New ways to slip under the wire with testing are being discovered and used by athletes and laboratories are constantly working to keep up. The use of recombinant human erythropoietin is a serious issue of misconduct in sport and needs to be ended in order to keep competition ethical and fair.

Friday, November 8, 2019

Big Band Era Essays - Instrumentals

Glenn Miller And The Swing/Big Band Era Essays - Instrumentals Glenn Miller and the Swing/Big Band Era Glenn Miller led the most popular big band in the world during 1939-42 and the most beloved of all the swing-era orchestras. His big band played a wide variety of melodic music and had tremendous success in every area of music. He was with the group for two years, and put together an enjoyable and well-rounded show. Glenn Miller was a man who influenced bands greatly for years. Alton Glenn Miller was born on March 1, 1904 in Clarinda Iowa. His family had a tendency to move frequently, to places such as North Platte, Nebraska, and Grant City, Oklahoma. It was in Grant City that Glenn bought his first trombone, at the age of 13. He earned the money by milking cows for $2 a week (Glenn Miller Biography). Glenn attended high school in Fort Morgan, Colorado. He studied at the University of Colorado for 2 years. It was in college that his interest in music flourished. He continued to play the trombone, his favorite instrument. Even at his young age, he was good enough to play in the Boyd Senter Band in Denver. At that point his love for music took over. Miller dropped out of school and went to the west coast to try his luck at being a musician. Miller played with many small bands until he had the opportunity to join Ben Pollack's orchestra in 1926. At that time the band included such well-known musicians as Loschiavo 4 Benny Goodman, Gill Robin, Fud Livingston, and Dick Morgan. In September of 1926, the Pollack Band went into the recording studios and worked on "When I First Met Mary" and "Deed I Do". These were probably the first record arrangements that Glenn Miller wrote. He stayed with the band until it went to New York in 1928 (Glenn Miller Story). It was then that he married his early love, Helen Berger, and moved with her to Manhattan. In the coming years, he developed his talent by working with Red Nichols in pit orchestras, as Smith Ballew's musical director, and with the Dorsey Brothers. In 1934, Miller helped form Ray Noble's American Orchestra, which soon became popular through radio broadcasts. Miller was the lead trombonist and arranger. In 1937, he left the band, and his own popularity among big band circles enabled him to form his own band, the Glenn Miller Orchestra. They brought out a few records, and went on tour, but the attempt was doomed from the start. He could not keep the orchestra together and had to let all but four musicians go. What Miller needed was his own trademark to distinguish him from the other bands. In 1938, with encouragement from friends, he gave it another try, and Miller built up his new orchestra on the basis of the four remaining musicians Hal McIntyre (alto), Rolly Bundock (bass), Chummy MacGregor (piano) and Bob Price (Glenn Miller Story). This time Miller was lucky enough to be supported by one of the most important agencies of the General Artists corporation and to obtain a record contract with RCA Victor's Budget Bluebird Label. Glenn Miller again went on tour. At this time, he had the distinguishing characteristic in Loschiavo 5 his music of having a clarinet double the sax melody an octave higher. Times nonetheless, were hard until the big breakthrough came in 1939. The General Artist Corporation managed to get Miller an engagement at the Glen Island Casino New Rochelle. Glenn Miller's time had come: on May 17 the band played its first night to a sold-out house and by the end of the engagements all box-office records had been broken. From there they traveled to Baltimore at the beginning of September. At Baltimore's Hippodrome Theater all records were again broken. The orchestra returned to New York and played in front at the largest audience in the city's history at the New York State Fare. On September 9, he broke Guy Lombardo's record attendance from the year 1931 and on October 6 helped Carnegie Hall to achieve new record receipts. The recording was also going full swing. Four records per week were being recorded by the orchestra. It was during this period, on April 4, that Miller's signature

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Mass Phenomena and the McCarthy Trials essays

Mass Phenomena and the McCarthy Trials essays "America is much more than a geographical fact. It is a political and moral fact - the first community in which men set out in principle to institutionalize freedom, responsible government, and human equality" wrote Adlai Stevenson, a famous politician of the 1950s. Sadly, during this time, the concepts of freedom, responsible government, and human equality were disregarded. They were deemed secondary to fear, violation of civil rights, and false accusations. Indeed, the McCarthy era was a dark time in American history. Many Asian and European nations had fallen to communism, each nation successively closer to the United States of America. This pattern was alarming to the democracy-loving Americans. To calm the panic, Congress passed the Alien Registration Act (ARA) on June 29th, 1940. This piece of legislation stipulated that it was illegal to "advocate, abet, or teach the desirability of overthrowing the government." The sole purpose of this act was to eliminate any threats to the democratic American government while young. The ARA was created especially to eradicate any prominent groups which promoted communism. One such party was the American Communist Party, which had gained recent recognition. Congress also formed the House of Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) under Martin Dies. Essentially, the function of HUAC was to interrogate persons suspected of treacherous behavior. Though it seemed somewhat harmless in the paper, the HUAC was essential in identifying "guilty persons." HUAC targeted Hollywood initially, for information on culpable individuals. By interrogating 41 unidentified people that worked in the motion picture industry, the HUAC accused nineteen people of holding communist beliefs. Ten of these accused nineteen refused to answer any questions. These ten individuals were christened by the press as the Hollywood Ten. Each of these men, Herbert Biberman, Lester Cole, Albert Maltz, Adrian Scott, Samuel ...

Monday, November 4, 2019

Exercise 1 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Exercise 1 - Essay Example Sexual abuse on the other hand is enticing a child to undertake in any sexual activities with or without consent. The awareness of the child is irrelevant in this case. Failure to provide a child’s needs amounts to neglect. The program’s mission will be protecting children from neglect and abuse to ensure they grow in a healthy environment and proper mental, social, psychological, and emotional development. The primary goals include educating the society on the various forms of child abuse and helping those affected by offering support financially, emotionally and health programs for the sexually abused (Watkins,2009). The effectiveness of the program is measurable in the following ways; data can be obtained from the related agencies and compared to cases reported after awareness is done. A reduction of the number of reported cases shows success. Conducting a benchmarking activity by comparing our work and that done by other child protection programs. The number of children who successfully undertake the program will also be an indication of the success of the program. Activities aimed at achieving the objectives include conducting fun days where families are mobilized and educated on child abuse. Blogs and social networks will ensure that a larger population gets the intended message and are continuously updated on any new events. A toll free centre will be accessible for 24 hours to respond to any emergencies and receive

Saturday, November 2, 2019

Public lnternational Law Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Public lnternational Law - Essay Example This paper will revolve around the international law. As defined in the article, international law refers to a body of legal rules, regulations, and acceptable practices by countries, international organizations, and people worldwide. It involves norms by which people interact with one another and with other citizens of different countries. Traditionally, the international law dealt with the conduct of states and international organizations (Kelsen, 2003:122). However, in the recent decades, individuals, transnational corporations, and non-governmental organizations are becoming increasingly active in global affairs, and their operations are too relevant to international law. The international law has two basic types, public and private international laws. As stated, public international law deals with relationships among nations or between a nation and an organization or people from different nations. One the other end, the private international law deals with disputes and conflicts between citizens from diverse countries or businesses form different nations (Aust, 2010:1-4). Presence of certain courts and bodies such as the United Nations Security Council facilitate the implementation of the activities of international law since they have the power to decide cases concerning the international law. Is international law good or bad? According to Slomanson, international law is good and essential to nations and individuals. This is because; international law provides bases of peace, harmony, and corporation. Therefore, individuals and nations are able to maintain relations in both local and international levels. The same way men and women could not co-exist peacefully in a society without laws to regulate their conduct the same way nations could not. In addition, international law is necessary since avails conventions used for regulating state conduct. It also impinges on state sovereignty by creating new structures vital for regulating cross border relations. I nternational law forms limitations regarding the sovereignty of member states by establishing principles that control the global relations, which compete with the core realistic principles of sovereignty and anarchy (Slomanson, 2010:195). Since it is an agreement and tradition signed by the subscribed member states, its authority and control are strong. Relationship between international law and municipal law Municipal law and international law co-relate in the manner that, each has mandate over a particular area of jurisdiction. The national law regulates behaviors of individuals in a state while international law deals with behaviors of states and the external relations of the states’ foreign affairs. According to Black public international law, there is a divergence of opinion on the question as to whether international law and municipal law on the various national laws can be said to form a unity being a manifestation of a single conception of law or whether the IL consti tutes an independent system of law essentially different from the municipal law. However, there is a difference with regard to the substance of the law between sovereign states in as much as municipal law governs individuals while international law controls the relationship among states whereby states arrive at it through signed agreement between them. Therefore, as regards competence,

Thursday, October 31, 2019

School finance Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

School finance - Essay Example Financial resources are required in order to run schools. Funding for education varies from state to state as well as district to district. The state has an obligation to fund education and this is mainly done through taxes. On the local level, the districts also have a duty to fund education and the funds are drawn from the taxpayer’s money. There are various obstacles that impact on the funding of education. For instance, the 2007 Global Financial Crisis negatively impacted on the funding of education in different states in the US. There have also been challenges in funding education such as the aspect of equity among different states. Some states are wealthier than others and this has drawn the ire of other people who have filed lawsuits to have this anomaly corrected. There are also challenges faced at the district level in terms of funding of education. While an effort is made to get more money for schools, there are other challenges that are encountered. These are related to how the money is spent in schools in an equitable way. Some money is spent on teacher incentives but this has also raised some eyebrows as a result of the fact that funding meant for education should be used as such. These extra costs have resulted in debts being incurred which pose challenges on managing budgets meant for education. Therefore, concerted efforts should be made by the Legislature to come up with holistic measures that can be implemented in order to ensure that money meant for education is used for that purpose.